Nouvelle Route De La Soie Definition

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Nouvelle Route De La Soie Definition

The Blue Dot Network, launched by the United States with Japan and Australia, was also presented as an alternative to the New Silk Road. [51] In November 2016, India and Japan launched a counter-project called the Asia-Africa Growth Corridor. This counter-proposal is based on cheaper and more sustainable maritime routes[50]. The Silk Road of the third millennium and its original model do not follow a single path. From the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, three different routes reach the foothills of the Tian Mountains, then reach China through a dozen border crossings. Speaking at the second Forum of the International Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in Beijing, President Xi Jinping called for “transparent” and “viable” projects that abide by “international rules” and do not risk corruption. In doing so, it takes into account the reservations expressed by some countries regarding the debt burden resulting from certain projects and the opacity of their financing. […] Read more The New Silk Roads can significantly improve trade, foreign investment and the living conditions of the populations of the participating countries. But to do so, China and the Belt and Road countries need deeper reforms to increase transparency, expand trade, improve debt sustainability, and mitigate environmental, social and corruption risks. On the 23rd, Chinese President Xi Jinping will visit Italy and Italian President Giuseppe Conte will attend the signing of the memorandum marking Italy`s accession to the “New Silk Roads”, China`s project for the development of trade relations across Eurasia and Africa. Italy is the first member of the G7 and the first founding state of the European Union to join. […] Read more A “counter-offensive” has been launched.

She comes from India, where Narandra Modi inaugurated in 2017 the “Road of Freedom”, which is based on sustainable development in the face of the “New Silk Roads”. In 2022, due to the war against Ukraine, several operators will divert rail traffic to a route called the medium corridor (mixed rail and sea) to avoid crossing Russia[11]. This name is confusing, as the road is not only a route for road vehicles, but also a sea route connecting China on the one hand and East Africa and the Mediterranean on the other. The “belt” consists of a series of land corridors linking China to Europe via Central Asia and the Middle East. Parallel to the sea route, China is investing in gigantic railways and highways from Xinjiang province, linking China and Europe, especially via Russia and Kazakhstan[13]. The French Observatory of the New Silk Roads, a French study and monitoring center, was founded in 2019. [54] [55] More than the quality of the asphalt or gauge, the time and money lost at the borders (about 40% of the duration and cost of the journey) are the main obstacles to the reconstruction of the Silk Road. 1. In the countries crossed by the New Silk Roads, the growth of trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) suffers from the lack of infrastructure and adequate public policies. Building new infrastructure can help fill these gaps, but it is costly, especially in the context of rising public debt.

The New Silk Road (Chinese: 丝绸之路经济带; Pinyin: sīchóuzhīlù jīngjì dài; The Silk Road Economic Belt (Chinese: 一带一路; Pinyin: yī dài yī lù)[2] (also OBOR in English for One Belt, One Road[3]) is both a series of sea[4] and rail links between China and Europe that pass through Kazakhstan. Germany, Belarus, Poland, France, Great Britain, Republic of Djibouti and Somaliland. However, relations between the Middle Kingdom and the African continent are not new: 52 Chinese diplomatic missions are present in Africa and trade was estimated at 220 billion dollars in 2014. It is these relations and trade relations that China wants to promote in this project, which will benefit both the export of Chinese industrial products and the import of raw materials. China is attracted by African raw materials as well as its consumer market. Politically, the goal is both national and international. Internally, it is a question of ensuring the integrity of its territory. The resource-rich province of Xinjiang, at the crossroads of hydrocarbon routes, is regularly plagued by ethnic conflicts. Beijing wants development aid from neighbouring countries (Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan) to reduce instability at the borders and inside the country. The internal objective is in addition to a regional policy objective in Central Asia: to extend Chinese influence over the historical Russian player and to assert itself as a stabilizing actor in international relations. The New Silk Road allows the Chinese government to reactivate the definition of development that prevailed before the 1980s. According to this vision, development does not happen by itself, fair prices, tax cuts and deregulation are not enough.

Above all, developing countries have specific needs, such as infrastructure. Between 2003 and 2015, Chinese aid to Africa increased from €631 million to nearly €3 billion. Chinese investments mainly finance important communication channels and production units. More specifically, the goal is to rebuild an economic and trade route that will bring China closer to Europe, Africa and Central Asia. The project covers 68 countries representing 4.4 billion people, 40% of global GDP and requires investments of tens of thousands of dollars. To carry out this gigantic project, Chinese President Xi Jinping organized a first summit dedicated to this subject on May 14, 2017. Nevertheless, Asian enthusiasm is not necessarily the same everywhere. Especially in the EU, scepticism about the reasons and, above all, the consequences of the project persists. The implementation of this program, which some do not hesitate to compare to a Marshall Plan of the 21st century, raises fears of China`s hegemony, as was the case with the United States at the time. In 2019, Italy joined the Silk Roads, which, according to Washington, amounts to “legitimizing China`s predatory investment approach”[16].

The Chinese economy is closely linked to other economies. For example, sea lanes were used in 2014, while 43% of China`s oil in 2013 and 38% of China`s liquefied natural gas in 2012 came from the Arabian Peninsula. 4. The Belt and Road Initiative carries risks specific to each major infrastructure project. These risks could be exacerbated by a limited level of transparency and openness at the level of the initiative itself, as well as poor governance and economic fundamentals in several participating countries. The acronym OBOR stands for “One Belt, One Road”. Behind this expression hides a gigantic project pursued by China that aims to revive the ancient silk roads. In addition, the term “New Silk Road” is used to refer to the program. 2.

Transport projects under the Belt and Road Initiative can lead to more trade, investment and poverty reduction. For some countries, however, the cost of new infrastructure may outweigh the potential gains. The “New Silk Road” project was initiated by Xi Jinping in September 2013 during a trip to Central Asia. The newly elected Chinese president spoke in Astana, Kazakhstan, about his plan to revive the mythical trade route that connected Xi`an in China to Antioch in Syria (now Turkey) nearly 2,000 years ago. Regarding the caravans that left for Europe at the time, Xi Jinping proposed new trade partnerships to his neighbors. In May 2017, Beijing organized the first international forum on the New Silk Roads, attended by twenty-eight heads of state and government around the Chinese president. In the form of a monumental project, originally aimed at linking Asia and Europe through a vast network of land and sea infrastructure, economic, energy and strategic issues were sketched out from the outset.